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Welcome to OSU Extra, the Extension, Research, and Teaching Archive of Oklahoma State University's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Our publications are available for online viewing as Adobe Acrobat PDF files. Click here to download Adobe Acrobat Reader or click on the Adobe Acrobat box below..

OSU Extension Facts provide research-based information on a wide variety of subjects in regard to agriculture, economic development, family and consumer sciences, and youth development. You can navigate this site to the desired publication by one of two methods:

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Latest News

‘Farm wedding’: Ideas to celebrate a wedding on the farm

A wedding in the country is not the same as a wedding on a farm . The farm weddings are the new bridal revolution of social networks (there are pages and message boards Pinterest devoted exclusively to them), and one of our favorite trends when decorating spaces or choose environments that are out of the norm and transported to the invited to a 100% country decor . Start point? From distributing fruit corners instead of the candy bar manias , to renting a barn or even a ranch to accommodate the ceremony and dinner.

One of the wedding photographer  farm wedding versions that works best on the other side of the pond is the pot luck dinner ;that is, a type of dinner in a petit committee, very popular in the United States, where each guest appears with a dish of his choice , which is shared among the rest of the guests. This type of banquet, to call it that, is only suitable for very small weddings, although we can not think of anything more intimate than a homemade meal to share among our loved ones in such a day.

It is important that in this type of wedding the menu does not differ from the environment that we have chosen to marry: a farm wedding must be accompanied by a dinner or meal ditto, with farm foods, to be able to be organic, to avoid prepared products and the containers and go directly from the pen to the table. Poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables, raw honey, fresh whole milk, farm cheese or a loaf of village bread.

Another aspect to take into account are motorized vehicles, which in recent times have become almost another guest at weddings, whether they are used in the trips of the bride and groom or as a decorative element or part of the photo shoot . The old trucks are a perfect scenario in the latter case, although we have also seen some other couple uploaded to an agricultural tractor. Put it in an open space, with alpacas of hay … and you already have a romantic scene assured.

The choice of space is probably the most complicated task when it comes to organizing a wedding of this style. The barns are the preferred option for hipster couples , although it is not always the simplest option, as well as entailing conditioning problems if the space does not normally lend itself to wedding hiring. On the other hand, an excessively prepared or ‘polished’ scenario may detract from the general idea of the rustic wedding.

There are other options, however, such as an old hacienda or even a vineyard , probably the most popular option among Spanish couples, because of the vast wine-making tradition of some autonomous communities. In these cases you can prepare the site to coordinate the theme of wine with the natural simplicity of farm weddings.

Whatever the case, there are classics that do not fail and that allow to give homogeneity to the decoration, either one or the other type of space. The suspended decoration is one of them: pennants, pompoms, plumes of flowers hanging from the ceiling, paper lamps and especially LED lighting networks, very effective in closed spaces with high ceilings. Make sure that the space has an electric generator , as well as enough cable meters to illuminate every corner.

The centerpieces also help to create atmosphere, especially with fresh fruits, old bottles, milkmaids, horseshoes, barrels, cans or even wooden trunks arranged as a pedestal. Take advantage to separate environments with gauze curtains in white. The flowers, always in season.

The other three key elements that you will surely use in your farm wedding: burlap, rope and raffia,cheaper than the conventional silk tie, and with as many possibilities as you have ideas. You can use them indiscriminately in the centers, the chairs or even the bouquet.

Do not forget to indicate in the invitation or even on the save-the-date the label for the wedding guests: after all, it is a somewhat more informal and collected ceremony , so it may not be necessary to throw the house by a window with party dresses or footwear.

Simple suits of linen and espadrilles for them, and short dresses and boots for them, so they do not have problems with the suit’s bottom. Make sure that the place of the wedding is clear in both cases (for example, with an invitation in the form of a barn, or where you put FARM big): it is not only important when choosing clothes, but it is possible that Some of your guests present some allergic specification related to the environment (hay allergy, for example).

Security measures and locksmith in the world of agriculture

Farmers in Madrid every day improve their machinery and catch up with the times, but this in turn means that they need to secure their facilities. Fortunately the world of locksmiths   is also taking new steps.

And it is that technology reaches all aspects of our lives, not only work machines are perfected, but also security systems, ranging from locks to armored doors, are made more efficient.

Of course, it is not about being overwhelmed by so many options, but about deciding between what is best for us to protect our assets.

Fortunately, the locksmiths  not only have specialized in the installation of new and sophisticated models of locks, but can also do wonders with those we have, in case we decide not to change them.

What is certain is that the new machinery that has begun to be used in the world of agronomy demands other storage conditions, and this, of course, requires that the locals adapt to these demands. Therefore it is worthwhile to study a little about the type of equipment we use and order doors that suit these, because in case they are very large they should be able to enter and leave the premises comfortably.

Luckily there is also a lot of information on these issues, as well as specialized people who provide advice so that the process of renewing our security system does not become so complex. The services offered by the locksmith melbourne have diversified to such an extent that the most unthinkable demands find a solution in a very short time.

And it is very painful to spend so much money on complex and advanced machinery to be stolen or lost some pieces. It’s about investing in tranquility. Sometimes it costs us a lot of work to separate money from the budget for these issues that have nothing to do directly with the issues of production; but when you think with confidence about the advantages offered by these investments, then we realize that they are really worth it.

The locksmiths  have managed to gain prestige thanks to the quality of their work and the speed with which they execute it, since they have a network of workers that operates throughout the region and that makes the service much more efficient.

Canines and felines – International Agricultural Show

Dogs and cats in the living room

By going to Pavilion 8, you will find many stalls for  the welfare of your animals  (food, accessories, information from the LOOF  ( organization of the breeding trophy and canine central society) and see  the fine flower of the Canine and feline breeding .

To  know all about the cats and the many races that exist , visit the professional breeders present on the space of the LOOF (Official Book of Feline Origins) which is the body approved by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry for the management of feline breeds and the issuance of genealogical documents (pedigrees) in France. Daily breeders and their cats come to meet the public to present the richness and diversity of feline breeds. An opportunity for everyone to choose the breed that suits him best.
Every day animations are organized on the canine ring and transmitted on giant screens to allow everyone to see the cats closely.
And for the first time, the LOOF

The selections take place on Saturday 25th and Sunday 26th February and Wednesday 1st March. During these 3 days, 30 selected cats are presented to the public with the announcement of their prize list and the explanation of their impact on their race (name, race, sex, age, championship title, genetic test results, production).

The filmed judgments are broadcast on the big screen so that the public can attend. During this animation, the cats are compared one by one to the standard of their race. In the end, the 10 best of the 3 days will return on Saturday 4 March for the grand finale.

“Dogs & Cats” together, a first 

The Société Centrale Canine partners with the LOOF (manager of the genealogical books for Dog Breed Index and cats) and for the first time creates a “Dogs & Cats” pole in the Pavilion 8. Sports demonstrations animated by young students of professional agricultural colleges , Animations on the training of dogs of arrest with puppies Epagneuls Bretons of 5 months … and many other highlights to discover each day on this space very appreciated by the public.

Without forgetting, the highlight of the presence of the Société Centrale Canine on the Show, the General Agricultural Canine Competition.


As you walk through the pavilion, you can admire  the most beautiful dogs and cats of each breed  and get information from breeders. Feline breeders are present at the show, for example, you can find the most popular breeds such as Maine Coon, British Shorthair and Persian.

Of  canine demonstrations  will also be held on the presentation of track: police dogs, guide dogs, agility, herding dogs, … will make their show to  the delight of young and old …

How to Use Instagram Stories for Your Business

With the Stories function, Instagram was able to create the Snapchat atmosphere for its users in a more friendly, simple and intuitive way. And it has been very well received, so many companies now turn their attention to this channel to connect with their customers.

Statistics indicate that 70% of Instagram users follow at least one company, at least 150 million daily publish Stories, one in five of these stories are shared by a company and this corporate use is increasing.

The fact that Instagram is the fastest growing social network in recent years can be explained by the way it has been integrated with the communicational platform of Facebook and by the constant innovation in the different functionalities that it offers its users.

This allows large brands and companies of all levels to design strategies and content designed for a single application that has it all .

In addition Instagram has been shown to cover the preferences of age groups of all ranks, unlike Snapchat, which is especially liked by younger people.


As with any other means of communication, it is essential to have a clear understanding of our product , our market and the message we want to communicate.

Is it a product, service, or your personal brand?

The range of possibilities such as tips, motivational messages, mini-tutorials, event summaries, product catalogs, will be determined by the nature of your venture, what you want to offer and make known.

get noticed on instagram Stories can increase visibility and consequent sales of goods and services.


Since the last update of Instagram, you will find a home screen like this:

The circles you see at the top are the Stories of your contacts, when you select any of them you will see the story they shared in the last 24 hours, after this time they fade.

The stories you have already seen will have a gray outline and those that do not, a circular outline colored with the colors of the Instagram logo.

While you see one of the Stories of your friends you can click on the screen to advance the posts, if you slide your finger up, you can leave a comment, slide down that Storie will close and you will return to the home screen.

Learn how to use instagram stories  to increase sales of your business.


These publications are not made from the traditional Instagram feature bar, with which you are familiar, in the upper bar are the tools you need to use Instagram Stories.

Click on the icon in the upper left corner with the + sign. Then follow the procedure to make a photo or video with Instagram: click on the capture button to make a photo, if you hold down you will create a video.

Ready to adapt the Stories to your digital marketing strategy?

We would love to hear your expectations, questions or comments and please help us reach out to more friends by sharing this story.


The Delta airline will use a new marketing structure in its cabins called Delta Premium the idea is to offer comfort for passengers who wish to have a flight …

The Delta airline will use a new marketing structure in its cabins called Delta Premium, the idea is to offer comfort for passengers who wish to have a comfortable flight and can arrive relaxed to their destinations. In this concept will also introduce the Wi-fi service throughout the flight. How can you use it? Does it have any cost?

Delta Airlines will introduce the premium type cab in the Airbus 350 and are expected to have 48 seats of this type. In addition all the fleets of the Delta line (Boeing 747, Boeing 767, Boeing 757-200, Boeing 777 and Airbus A33) will have Wi fi service during flights.

Delta CEO Joe Kiely made it clear that the company made a significant investment (millions of dollars) to give its users more convenience so they can always stay connected no matter how many hours their entire flight can last.

Customers flying with Delta Airlines will have Wi fi service on domestic and international flights. The idea had been around for more than a year. Customers have always suggested that during flights it is important to keep in touch with their customers or companies to keep up with their business that without losing comfort.

To be able to offer the internet service during flights Delta Airlines partnered with Gogo a company that has more than 20 years in the market offering service to put the internet in the sky has many customers (American Airlines, Alaska Airlines, Aeromexico among others ) .

What do you need to be able to enjoy wi fi service during flights on Delta Airlines?

It is necessary to acquire a Wi fi mobile pass to navigate when you are at 10,000 feet in height, there are different prices depending on your need:

24 hour pass for $ 16 dollars.

Monthly Pass for $ 49 dollars.

Annual Pass for $ 599.

Delta Airlines joins the world of interconnectivity during flights, once acquired the pass connectivity is necessary that the plane reaches the 10,000 feet, then turn on your phone and look for the network called GogoInflight so that you can navigate for as long as it lasts the flight. You can check if the next flight you will take has the Wi-Fi service.  This service will start operating on Delta Airlines from next 2017.

Do you think the price for the service offered by Delta Airlines is affordable? What do you think of this Delta Airlines idea, do you like it? Visit us here! http://www.deltaextranet.org

The bass fishing equipment service

For fisheries we understand the minimum instruments necessary for the practice of sport fishing of the black bass.

It is essential that we understand that there must be an adequate balance between the reel, reel line, weight of the lure, to get the best benefit from our equipment, so we must respect the manufacturer’s suggestions, which are usually found Printed on both the reed and the reel, and is the minimum requirement that we must demand in them, because that team that lacks these suggestions, is far from adequate, so if we are well hooked in this fascinating Sport of fishing, try to buy quality and, of course, looking for the best price.

What do we mean by a balanced team? First the reed is specific for each type of reel so there is one for fly fishing, others for spinning reels, others for this list of baitcasting reels, and a few for spincast.

Also they bring printed the minimum and maximum range of line resistance that should be used with it. The same happens in the reel and it is not convenient to exceed them, because firstly we reduce considerably the amount of yards that can be saved in this one and in the second, the resistance of the gears comes graded for the type of line specified and, finally the action Of the reeds determines the weight of lure to use in such a way that if we do not respect the latter well we run the risk of breaking the reed when using a greater weight, or we will end up with the shoulder and elbow sore when making a greater effort to throw , If we use lures of less weight than stipulated.

The action of the cane must also come printed in it, this is for the use that we must give it; Since as we shall see later according to the lure to be used, it will be the reed.


It is the most important instrument of our fishing equipment. It has the following functions:

A) Support the assembly of the reel.
B) throw the decoy.
C) feel the TAP, ie the moment when the fish bites, or rather suck the lure; The higher the quality, the greater sensitivity the cane will present.
D) Nailing the fish to feel the tap, which is commonly called a strike. E) handle and approach the bass.

If this function corresponds completely to the reed, contrary to what we do when we start fishing, we use as a winch our reel and with the handle and approach the fish, getting deteriorate the line and the gears of the reel.
F) to handle once in the water the decoy, printing different movements, as the case may be.

The reeds are manufactured in different materials and with different actions, sizes and types, according to the reel to be used. The materials most commonly used in the manufacture of the reeds are fiberglass and graphite; Plastic, foam, or cork handles and these can be short or long.

The cane has guides that lead the line up to the reel, which can be made of materials such as porcelain (the best), plastic, or wire.

And it is very convenient to select a cane with a minimum of six guides, and maximum 8, since the more guides have a cane the better the force the line exerts on it, the ideal average of guides is 7.

It is advisable to periodically review the status of the guides, since with the use the line is marking them, and those marks come to cut the line, causing us a bad time, either when losing a decoy, or Worse, the fish of our dreams. The size of the reed varies between 4 and 6.5 feet (1.2 to 1.8 m), if it is a reel for spincast reels (button), and reels of baitcasting, while for spinnin reeds the ideal measure is between 5 to 7 feet (1.5 to 2.15m).

The reel has the following functions:

A) Save the line.
B) Release the line when casting the decoy.
C) recover the line that we have approached with the cane.

Basically we have four types of reels for sport fishing:

1.- Fly fishing reel.
2.- spincast spool, or button.
3.- Spinning reel, or hoop.
4.- Baitcasting reel.

1.- The fly fishing reel , has little use in
11bass fishing , given the characteristics of the bass habitat, limits its use.Basically serves to save and collect the line, in the released has no interference.

2.- Spincast reel, or button reel , is very common to be called a closed reel, is the easiest to use, and in addition to the more economical, it is very rare that the line is
11entangled, and its mechanism of operation Is so comfortable, that you simply press the clutch button and release it when you launch the rod so that the lure comes out with a minimum of effort. If the clutch is released earlier, the lure will come out very high, and if it is released out of time, the troll will fall a very short distance, which means that it has its proper time to release the clutch, which is achieved with practice.

We recommend the beginner to go out to practice in an open area and put a bucket as a target, to shoot at different distances, in order to acquire marksmanship and skill, since in certain circumstances we will be forced to throw in the exact place where I jump The bass, or just ahead of some structure, where we suppose we can find it.
It has little line capacity, which causes a lot of wear on the line. A tip for when we are stuck with this type of reel, just like the spinning, IS NOT TO TREAT TO DISCONTINUE, giving multiple turns to the reel crank, as this will excessively twist the line, facilitating entanglement and weakening the line.

If we bring the brake very tight, and the pull that the fish is giving exceeds the resistance of the line, the end result will be that the line is busting with the subsequent loss of our animal. The spincast reel is the most suitable for the fisherman who starts, for the simple of its operation.

3.- Spinning reel, the reel of hoop . It has an open recovery system, the reel where the line is tangled, and
11its winding (ring) are in sight. It is an equally easy to handle system than the spincast. The brake is sometimes located in the central part of the spool or coil, or at the rear of the reel. The reel assembly system in the reed is leaving this down, not up as in other types. The rod does not have a trigger, since the base of the reel is considerably long, and fulfills this function, of support of the finger. The way to operate it is by taking the line with the index finger of the hand that holds it, and with the other hand we lift the hoop, With what we converted to the index finger in the clutch of the reel, which will have to release the line at the time of the launch, some experienced fishers recommend this type of reels for use of trolling, and in ultralight equipment, simplifies the launch of Lures very small and with low weight. Personally my aim is deficient with this team, but I have seen fishermen do wonders with them, as you will see it will all be a matter of trying each one of them to see what they are left with. It simplifies the launching of very small lures and with low weight. Personally my aim is deficient with this team, but I have seen fishermen do wonders with them, as you will see it will all be a matter of trying each one of them to see what they are left with. It simplifies the launching of very small lures and with low weight. Personally my aim is deficient with this team, but I have seen fishermen do wonders with them, as you will see it will all be a matter of trying each one of them to see what they are left with.

4.- Baitcasting reel , commonly called open reel or revolving drum. Without doubt it is the best engine that exists for fishing, but it is also the most difficult to handle, since we will have to make use of the thumb
11to slow the spool or coil moments before the lure falls into the water, To stop the rotation of the same and to prevent a tangle is made of the line … Likewise it is difficult the shots in the opposite direction to the air, and it is not said if throwing we make contact with some object, and we will be unraveling the nest Of ostrich.

At the moment of releasing the line, the friction is greatly reduced, producing very long and precise shots, although the latter depends more on the fisherman than on the reel. Some have bearings for ease of handling, making them softer, and others are mounted on bronze bushings, which are the most economical. Just squeeze the clutch, so that the spool is free and able to launch. All have a set brake for the spool rotation speed at launch, and some also have a magnetic brake for fine tuning.

Both must be graded according to the weight of the lure, to avoid that once the lure falls into the water the spool continues to spin, creating a slide, sometimes impossible to untangle. The procedure for calibrating the brakes is as follows:

1.- We press the brake of pressure in an average term.
2.- We tighten the clutch to allow the lure to lower freely.
3.- When the lure makes contact with the water, if the spool stops turning, it means that we are well calibrated.
4.- If the lure does not reach the water, the pressure is exceeded, and it will have to be loosened.
5.- If the spool keeps turning the contact of the lure with the water, it is necessary to print more pressure.

Once the pressure brake has been calibrated, we move to the magnetic one, which is usually 1 to 10 degrees (from lowest to highest pressure), we make a shot and if the spool turns a little after falling, we press the magnetic, one or two Points, and so on until you find the right pressure.

Another component of the reel is the drag, to calibrate the tension of the line, which is usually located on the crankshaft, and has a star shape, turning it forward we tighten the tension, and back we loosen it. The bobbin is the front structure that drives the line to be evenly distributed in the bobbin.

It is very important to give proper maintenance to our reels, with frequent cleaning and lubrication, for this to consult the attached brochure, at the time of making the purchase, or take it to a specialized service center. If we have gone out to fish to the sea, it is very important to put them to soak in water, to remove the salt that is corrosive for the metals and later to lubricate them.

Iron and cast iron fryers Which is better?

The life of iron pans is always greased with a thin layer of oil. Iron, in its two variants, gain popularity in the search for frying pans that give us ecology and traditional flavors without the need of a non-stick coating.

It just needs a little pampering and you have it for life.


It is not a myth that an iron skillet is passed down from generation to generation. They are made  from a metal plate and also  filling sand molds with cast iron.

Cast iron or cast iron frying pans?

When we talk about iron pans we have to differentiate between two types: those of cast iron and moldings, created from matrices with steel sheets. You can see the videos of the manufacturing processes of these iron pans to notice the difference.

Iron pans are suitable for all types of kitchens : gas, ceramic hob, induction, charcoal or even firewood.

And in practice what is the difference? In addition to aesthetic and price issues are differentiated in the maintenance after each use . Cast iron pans do not need the maintenance that molded pans do.

Heal your iron pan

In the case of Mineral B De Buyer frying pans will require an initial curing process of the frying pan as explained in this post. In this article you can see how to make the curing of a iron skillet of Buyer.

This process is not applicable to Le Creuset frying pans which, as we discussed above, do not need an initial curing. It is simply necessary to wash with soap and water and are ready to use.

Cooking with iron pans

Iron pans are the pans of a lifetime, used for generations. Currently we are experiencing a return to this type of product, especially for the robustness and durability of materials and sometimes lower cost compared to other types of pans. These pans that we present in this post are considered high-end iron pans , but if we are accustomed to cooking with nonstick pans, the transition from these to iron requires a few guidelines to accustom to cook with them and get , The maximum match to our purchase.

As we mentioned before, the nonstick that is created in these pans is progressive depending on the uses . That is, the more we use our iron pan, the faster we will get that layer of nonstick. For the first cooking, when our cast iron skillet handle cover is new, we must follow a series of guidelines that will make us enjoy them from the first moment.

The life of the pans is always greased with a thin layer of oil. At first, if we are going to cook meals that tend to stick like tortilla or fish, it is advisable to use a small amount of oil (in this case, a small stream would be more than enough) and make to work to the pan over medium heat / Under, supervising the cooking. As the time progresses, we will remove the food with the aid of a spatula preventing it from sticking to the body of the pan.

The vegetables and vegetables respond perfectly to the frying pan from the first moment. They are food that we can cook as we do on a regular basis being sure that we are going to stick. Anyway, it is always good to get used to stirring the food during cooking, not only concerned about sticking, but also for the flavors and aromas to combine.

Features of the kitchen with Iron pans

Natural non-stick pans

Many customers have chosen these pans because they are natural pans , without Teflon , which create a nonstick patina which improves use after use.

A pan for life, guaranteed

The French manufacturers, De Buyer and Le Creuset, guarantee these iron pans for life, do you want a more powerful argument to bet on them?

How much do these pans cost? Buy iron pans


Buyer pans have a starting price of about 22 € for a 20 cm skillet. While vitrified cast iron has an initial price of 99 € for a 24 cm pan. diameter.

In Lecuine you can buy Mineral B De Buyer iron pans or Le Creuset cast iron pans in various sizes, even in sets of 2 and 3 pans. Use the code “soylecuiner” that will have a 5% discount for being a reader of this blog. Lecuine can send you the pans to any country in the world .

The iron pan with the right size

How many people will you cook? Do you need more frying pan and a measure? In Lecuine you will find pans of 20, 24 and 28 cm. Diameter and packs of 2 and 3 pans to cover all your needs.

The brands

Around the world the trend of using these pans is a growing trend linked to traditional cooking and the use of local foods, so brands around the world are developing their updated versions of the whole life pans.

In Lecuine we have selected the two most prestigious brands in Europe , casually two French brands, De Buyer and Le Creuset. We have published a specific post for each brand that we invite you to read to know more about each one.

Benefits of lead generation for industry carpet cleaning

There are many carpet cleaning companies out there that offer a lot of services in the field of cleanup activities. In the United States alone, it is reported that about 40,000 companies in the cleaning sector focuses on carpet cleaning. Most of these carpet cleaning rates London companies are small and medium enterprises.

The number of carpet cleaning companies is growing with each passing day. This sector is one of the most difficult markets to penetrate. There will be a time when these companies are struggling to find leads for their businesses to thrive and grow. To improve search leads carpet cleaning, these companies can outsource their lead generation campaign to professional telemarketing companies.

First, outsourcing companies a cleaning business lead generation campaign carpets’ professional telemarketing to offer many advantages. For example, outsourcing call centers telemarketing professionals to acquire cable carpet cleaning allows the company to spend less than building an internal team to perform lead generation activities. Carpet cleaning companies not only save costs, but also time and effort. Let us see one by one to save know and understand how outsourcing these telemarketing companies can leave the company to save a lot.


* Build an internal team of sales lead generation representatives means that the company needs to continuously finance the campaign. This may be the opposite of benefits for a carpet cleaning company in the long term in lead generation campaigns can be a disadvantage for them, because it can lead to put a huge dent in the financial statements house.

* Outsourcing companies for telemarketing has enabled the company to acquire quality leads, worth the money carpet cleaning company. These cables are properly qualified and are most likely to leave the business profit in business relationships long term. In short, the money the company has invested in outsourcing the campaign, will return to them as a large increase in admission rates.


* If a carpet cleaning company would choose to build a team in-house procedures to manage lead generation then be formed from scratch. Again, this could become a big disadvantage because training people can take an enormous amount of time. This can cost the company to lose its place in the fierce competition in the sector.

* If your lead generation is provided by a telemarketing company can get instant access to a greater degree of control for your campaign. Not only that, the company can get its much needed place in the competition, but may also have more time to concentrate on other important tasks for your business thrive.


* We know that most commercial carpet cleaning are those that are small or moderate scale. As such, they may not have the manpower needed for the formation of teams, including the generation and qualification. Knowing this, it is much cheaper for companies such as outsourcing the lead generation campaign means that are put in the hands of the formation of these telemarketing telemarketing companies. All that is required of these carpet cleaning companies have the information necessary to participate in the launch of training telemarketer.

With these advantages, carpet cleaning companies are assured of leads for your lead generation campaign and save on costs.

Coffee exchange for agricultural machinery is alternative to credit

New Holland began in 2015 to negotiate barter agricultural machines, accepting part or all of the funding in soybean sacks. Now, as a credit alternative, the brand started adopting the barter with coffee. With this, the producer gains access to high technology, visibility of investment in its currency (sacks) and directs efforts to increase crop productivity.

For Jefferson Kohler, New Holland’s marketing manager, barter operations have always mattered as a way to fund the producer. “For the brand this is an agile and safe model. The barter has been an alternative tool for financing machines in a time of credit shortage and can gain a greater representation in the agricultural machinery segment, “he points out.

Common among farmers for the acquisition of seeds, pesticides and fertilizers, the operation consists of the negotiation of agricultural machines for coffee sacks. “For New Holland, coffee deals are incipient, but with very positive potential for next year,” explains Kohler. In order to structure these negotiations we had the advice of Unibarter, a reference company in the subject and that led the operation with Louis Dreyfus Company, a leader in the commercialization and processing of agricultural products and one of the key partners of this program in Brazil.

New Holland prioritized the states of São Paulo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the main coffee producers, to start this type of financing. The first negotiation took place in the municipality of Varginha (MG) with a tractor TT3880F. The producer can choose between paying the full value of the best coffee machines under 300 or a part of it, and the remainder financing on traditional agricultural lines.

For each commodity there are specific rules regarding deadlines and forms of negotiation. Marcelo Pavão, manager of the Igarapé concessionaire in Varginha, responsible for the first barter negotiation with New Holland coffee, says that now the customer has one more way to acquire the brand’s products. “My region produces far more coffee than soy and farmers have the option to trade and invest in machinery and technology for farming.”

New machine helps farmers in conilon coffee harvest in ES

The Holy Spirit is harvesting the conilon coffee crop, which this year should be lower because of the drought, about 68% of production. There are 40,000 properties, mostly small coffee growers.

Frederico Schramm, known as Seo Fritz, has seven acres of planted area in Governador Lindenberg, in the northwest of the state. Every year it renews the coffee machine rentals singapore, coffee plantation, investing in fertilization, new varieties and drip irrigation. These measures helped not to suffer the consequences of the drought that hit the region.

He is optimistic about this harvest and expects to harvest 120 sacks per hectare. This is above the average of Espírito Santo, 35 bags per hectare. According to the farmer, half the cost of production is with labor. This year he hired 18 lanyards at the beginning of the harvest. “Last year was hard work. This year is being easier because production in the region has dropped a lot. So there’s more labor left, “he explains.

The lanyard has to pull the grains of the foot, which fall into the sieve, or a canvas stretched out on the ground. Still separates the twigs and leaves that come together. They earn by production. The more you fill the drawer, the better. So they leave to prune the branches a month later.

This technique is fundamental to guarantee a good flowering in the next harvest, as agronomist José Lani explains. “First because you eliminate the part of rust, which is source of knot. And another because, if I take only the grain and not take the branch, the plant will continue to spend nutrients to maintain this branch. If I shoot, the plant will make new releases and I will have greater productivity next year. ”

But a technological novelty arose to modify this management. In this harvest, some producers of conilon coffee from Espírito Santo are testing the use of a machine that enters the coffee plantation at the time of harvest. It is not that the machine harvests the coffee. What it enables, is the joining of two steps of this process at once.

With the machine, pruning is done at the same time. Lanyards cut the whole branches with the machete. Everything falls flat on the canvas and the machine does the pick-up service. The coffee bar is also made inside the machine. Leaves and branches go to one side, where they are crushed, and the grains come out clean from the other.

Rural workers approved the machine. “I’m finding it good because you can harvest more quickly, and we earn, besides the salary, more commission per foot of coffee,” says Antonio Soares. They are not afraid to lose the place to the machine. “After the harvest the work continues in the field. The cafe serves us all year round. ”

The technology was developed by Incaper, the Capixaba Institute of Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension. But the man who manufactures the machine is an agricultural implement company, who adapted the equipment of the bean harvest.

Bento Venturini was one of the first buyers. He paid $ 160,000 to use on at least 40% of the 120 hectares. Now he is renovating the coffee plantation, with a new variety, which produces the same amount of grains, with fewer stems, as the coordinator of Incaper Romário Ferrão’s coffee-growing program explains: “instead of leaving four stems per plant, he left Two stems. Fewer stems for the plant to become more erect. This new management is to really create a more favorable condition for your harvest. “

Improve your communication in English with popular culture

Improve your communication skills in English through pop culture. 

Surely ye have noticed this phenomenon but generally English – speaking countries often make reference to pop culture in their daily conversations.

In fact, if you’re not familiar with these expressions, it can be very confusing and feel a bit off. For these reasons, from ABA Inglés we want to give a consejitos to empaparos of popular culture of English – speaking and at least understand a native when using expressions of popular culture.

Ready? We started

See series and movies in their original language and English-speaking course

Surely with your friends and family you pass some time talking about series and movies that are following.

Also, we love to use phrases series and talk using these phrases, just as they do in English -speaking countries so it is very important to know what series and movies are the most followed in these countries to know what they are talking about.

Do not forget, if you do not understand what they are talking and if you have the intuition that relate to a sentence of a series or movie just ask; “Is that a series’s quote? “

Use dictionaries of urban culture

Although in most dictionaries of words generally do not often make references to the words that come from popular culture appear.

Urban dictionaries as dictionary include words such where you define what it means and where the word occurs in concrete.

Meet new trends

As is well known, written English may be different from spoken English, for example, we find the colloquial contractions, as want to -> wanna or later we found that young people instead of saying totally  say tots .

How do we know these new trends?

  • Current visiting blogs, checking these new words in the Urban Dictionary
  • Knowing new acronyms and abbreviations . Acronyms may appear in uppercase or lowercase but mean exactly the same.

Surely many acronyms you sound English, and very generally used in text messages and whatsapp etc.

Some of the most used are:

  • JK = Just kidding : s and use when you’re joking and means something like (just kidding)

You look so serious tonight, JK! (look very serious tonight, just kidding)

  • LOL = Laughing out loud: (laughter / laughing loudly) In the case of “ LOL ” you can hear even in spoken English and has spreadlot.

The image of the monkey is so funny, LOL! (The image of the monkey is fun, juas juas)

  • WTF = What the f *** ?:  used to exclaim surprise, but not a good, but something that surprised you much oddwy, could be translated as a (But what are you telling me?)

Your friend stole 300 € from me! (Your friend has stolen 300 €)11

W.T.F? My friend? (Whatmy friend?)

  • BTW = By the way: to add information, to be more specific (byway …)

I’ll bring something to drink. BTW, I will be there at 20:00

(I’ll bring something to drink. By the way, I’ll be there at 20:00)

  • IDK = I don’t know. I just do not know)

When is your friend coming? (When does your friend?)

Idk, ask Laura (Laura do not know ask)


As a last and fourth council, we suggest you a day in different apps market as it is very likely to hear expressions like we are whatsapping everyday. We have to accept that the apps are influencing much in popular culture.

The more you learn about popular culture, the easier communication como aprender ingles rapido e facil, because you can see that English speakers use a lot of these expressions and also your English sound much more fluid and realistic.

25 films about food

The film is still an effective way to raise awareness and interest in certain topics. In this article we collect some shorts and documentaries about the food system found the net. This article is based on a work of Food Tank and own investigation of Earth Foundation .We offer a list of documentaries in which the protagonists are food, in a thought to adopt a more healthy and sustainable food vision. This compilation from movie4k  also serves to deepen the importance of land rights of small farmers, from those located in sub-Saharan Africa , through the insidious domination of fast food in an urban community of California. Each title offers an opportunity to be informed and simultaneously inspire a new healthy eating style for us and the planet.

1. A farmer in Africa property rights : in developing countries around the world, farmers are losing their land and natural resources, causing negative effects on local livelihoods and welfare, and the local environment and ecosystem services. Short of World Resources Institute. 1:56 min


2. A place at table (A place at the table) : documentary about hunger, especially in the US, with the presence of Jeff Bridges describing the challenges for the food system. 2:26 min.

3. Fast Food : mounting infographics on different data on food. 2:15 min.

4. Food chains (food chains) : film director Sanjay Rawal on human rights violations of agricultural workers who harvest 125 million kg of fresh fruits and vegetables (280 million dollars) each day in the United States.

5. Le soif du monde (The thirst of the world) : 90 – minute documentary photographer Yann Arthus-Bertrand, author of the documentary Home , focusing on water issues.

6. Food speculation : In 2007 and 2008, food prices rose sharply, leading to riots in all developing countries. World Economy, Ecology and Development (WEED) describes how speculation in financial stocks futures food causes dangerous fluctuations. 7:17 min.

7. Forks Over Knives : This film shows how degenerative diseases that plague in the United States, are due to the consumption of processed foods and animal products.

8. Fresh, the film : a documentary highlighting to farmers who are innovating and reinventing the food system to prevent pollution, obesity, and depletion of natural resources. 72 minutes.

9. The hidden costs of burgers : cortometraje Center for Investigative Journalism detailing the costs of meat with surprising data. 7:52 min.

10. How to feed the world? (How to feed the world?) : Short film created for the exhibition Bon Appétit in Science City of Paris in 2010. It offers the viewer a global perspective on the production and distribution of food along with guidance on how to eat more sustainably. 9:04 min.

11. The Harvest (Harvest) : documentary that follows the lives of three immigrant workers field, all under 18 years. 7:27 min.

12. King Corn : is a documentary about two friends who grow an acre of corn and realize how their crop drives fast food. With the help of neighbors, genetically modified seeds and poisonous herbicides achieved a record harvest, most subsidized on an acre of land Iowa. And when they try to trace their corn crop in the food system they assail questions about what we eat and how we grow.

13. Nokia, HK Honey : hidden in the urban landscape of Hong Kong, there is a community of beekeepers who are providing residents access to local honey and help urban dwellers are closer to their food. 03: 21min.

14. Our Daily Bread : 90 – minute documentary featuring a striking look at how food is produced and how food production companies use technology to maximize efficiency and profit.


15.- The Garden (The Garden) : documentary that tells the story of a community of South Central Los Angeles to defend a piece of land to grow amidst the city.

16. The Meatrix : this small film addresses four basic questions: cruelty to animals present system of meat production, the inherent danger of creating resistant germs by excess supply of antibiotics, massive environmental contamination by manure and agriculture – based fertilizer to feed the animals and the destruction of rural communities.

17. The price of sugar : commovedora film that examines the working conditions and treatment of sugarcane farmers from Haiti in the Dominican Republic. A complaint about basic human rights involved in the cultivation of sugar. 90 min

18.- The Scarecrow : animated short film in which the protagonist is a scarecrow who tries to free your local food system unsustainable and processed foods. Promotes an app (The Scarecrow) in favor of sustainable food. 3:23 min.

19. Taste the waste : 90 – minute documentary filmmaker Valentin Thurn about the food they throw away. In European households each year are thrown in the trash food worth 100 billion euros, an amount equivalent to the annual volume of business of Nestle, the world’s largest food company.

20. Waste (Garbage) : a brief overview on the problem of food that end up in the trash with very basic data, but precisely for this reason interesting. It is a short produced by Schnittstelle THURN GbR from Germany commissioned by WWF and UNEP in collaboration with FAO and SIWI.

21. Bottled life : Documentary on the issue of bottled water. Commentary and basic data “Bottled Life “.

22. Our daily poison : almost 2 hours documentary based on the book of complaint about the genetic manipulation of food Marie-Monique Robin.

23. We Feed the World : 96 – minute documentary about food and globalization, fishermen and farmers, truckers and corporate executives on the circulation of goods and money, on the shortage surrounded by abundance. With its unforgettable images, the film tells us about the production of our food and tells us why we have something to do with hunger in the world. Comment and basic data We feed the world .

24. Super size me : the filmmaker Morgan Spurlock continues its evolution for thirty days eating only -under doctor monitoring the star American McDonald’s menu to denounce how it affected the health of people in a documentary-testimony of 90 min. Review and basic data of Super Size Me .

25.- Fast Food Nation : 115 min film. which tells how research can be found droppings in hamburger meat. The story based on the book by Eric Schlosser ” Fast Food. The dark side of junk food ” is also a statement against the harsh working conditions of Mexican workers. Comment and basic data of Fast Food Nation .

And a couple of EXTRAS:

Darwin’s Nightmare : documentary on fishing for Nile perch in Lake Victoria and the consequences of globalization on the purchase of “African mere”. 107 mintos. Comments and basic information Nightmare Darwin .

The End of the Line. A world without fish : Imagine a world without fish? This 2009 documentary explains how overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Based on the book by British journalist Charles Clover, describes how the current global consumption is unsustainable: since 1998 the fish population is declining. Review and basic data in The End of the Line .

Improving agriculture diets by taking into account nutrition

Agriculture that takes into account nutrition is an approach that seeks to maximize the contribution of agriculture to nutrition. This strategy emphasizes the multiple benefits of enjoying a varied diet, and recognizes the nutritional value of foods for good nutrition, health and productivity, as well as the social importance of food and agriculture sector to support rural livelihoods . In addition, agriculture that takes into account nutrition involves directing attention to poor households, promote gender equality and provide nutrition education for the household resources are used to improve the nutrition of their members, especially women and children little ones. Finally, it involves linking agriculture sectors facing other causes of malnutrition, specifically education, health and social protection.

FAO promotes agriculture that takes into account nutrition through a variety of partnerships and capacity development. For example, since 2011, FAO has partnered with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to help countries integrate nutrition into their national agricultural investment plans. More recently, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), FAO, the World Bank and Renewed Efforts Initiative Against Child Hunger organized a training session on the subject, with the aim of expanding the pool of experts who know the links between agriculture and nutrition. The group is currently working to transform the workshop in a series of training sessions. Bibi Giyose, Senior Policy Officer FAO Nutrition, attended the workshop and shared their professional knowledge.

What were the main contributions of the workshop on agriculture that takes into account nutrition?

The attention of the workshop focused on the integration of objectives and concerns related to nutrition in the planning process of agricultural investment. The training emphasized planning nutrition interventions since the start of a project, rather than adapting existing programs, representing a detailed analysis of the situation to understand the nutritional problems and their causes in order to define the ways in that investments in agriculture can prevent malnutrition.Prevention is key, because in addition to the obvious health benefits that involves stopping before it starts malnutrition, prevention programs are more profitable than those that focus exclusively on treatment. Also in the workshop stressed the importance of monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of agricultural investments in food consumption and nutrition to document the positive results were noted, but also to take corrective measures in the event that negative impacts are observed.

¿ What is your experience in working with agriculture that takes into account nutrition?

As Senior Officer nutrition policy, work on incorporating nutrition considerations into policies and programs, trying to determine the best way agriculture in addition to the economic benefits, may benefit from nutritional goals. At this time, it is important to examine global trends in agricultural development, specifically how different agencies and sectors face or may face in their nutrition programs. Understand who does what is essential to ensure a coordinated and effective response.

What are some examples of how agriculture can improve nutrition in a home or community?

Instead of focusing exclusively on cash crops for sale in the market, rural farmers can use their land to produce a variety of commodities, including fruits, vegetables and small animals like chickens. This can improve household food security, nutrition and economic situation of the family and the community. For many households, agriculture is also a key revenue source that can be used, for example, to buy a variety of food and access to health care and clean water.Investing in school feeding programs with local products will help farmers by giving them a guaranteed market, but also encourage the proliferation of crops and nutritionally beneficial foods for children.

How can you change the trends and standards of agricultural development to improve nutrition?

There must be a change of mentality in the way we currently consider agriculture. This is not simply limited to the production of cereal crops; from horticulture to forestry and fisheries, agriculture should be seen not only as a means to an end but as an essential process for improving the quality of food available to the community and ensure healthy soils and ecosystems for future. Our food systems are also changing rapidly, as seen in the increasing reliance of rural purchased and processed foods. Although agricultural modernization and greater integration of markets is associated with lower level off of malnutrition, we also observed an increase in cases overweight and chronic diseases related to diet such as diabetes worldwide, while deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are standing at unacceptably high levels. Therefore, it is urgent to make the promotion of healthy diets occupy a central place in agricultural policies and programs.

This requires that we improve our indicators and we develop measurement systems that provide us with an accurate picture of how agriculture affects detailed 3 week diet plan review and then use this information to drive policy changes. Programs should focus more on prevention of all forms of malnutrition, and nutrition is to be incorporated into agricultural investment plans to ensure that a budget dedicated to agriculture that takes into account nutrition.

¿ In addition to agricultural production, what other ways you can change the food system to improve nutrition?

Nutrition must be incorporated into all aspects of the value chain, starting with soil rich in nutrients that improve crop quality, and extend through the food system to other elements such as food safety, processing and enrichment of these and their proper preparation and household consumption. The food preparation is essential to produce nutritionally rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables and dairy products, available all year. In addition, you can reduce the time of preparation of food; therefore, like other technologies that save labor, can enable women to devote more time to care for their children, specifically to suck them. Initiatives in nutrition education explaining which combinations of foods provide essential vitamins and minerals can also have a big impact.

Do you have some examples of projects or associations related to agriculture that takes into account nutrition within FAO?

Nutrition in the early stages of life is essential to stay well nourished, healthy and productive throughout a lifetime. Hence FAO work with farmers, processors and local markets in several countries to procure quality ingredients for supplementary feeding programs from six months of age. These complementary foods, when combined with continued breastfeeding, provide essential nutrients for the nutritional needs of growing children and for optimal physical and mental development. In Cambodia and Malawi, FAO works with extension and social services for women to introduce improved complementary foods using local ingredients by cooking demonstrations. In addition, in partnership with the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Fund of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), promotes improved school nutrition through school gardens, healthy school meals and the integration of nutrition education in the curricula of schools. In Cape Verde , for example, working with the Government, UN agencies and civil society organizations to promote buying local fruits, vegetables, beans and fish producers place to diversify school meals.

At the policy level, FAO is working with ministries of agriculture and health and other relevant institutions in various countries around the world, especially in member countries of the Movement for promoting nutrition, in order to ensure that nutritional goals are incorporated into agricultural policies and agricultural interventions are integrated into multi-sectoral nutrition strategies. FAO supports the creation of an enabling environment and capacity building for successful interventions on the ground to run on a larger scale.


Anyone who has shopped for a tap’ve probably heard of Kohler. It is one of the leading companies in the production of valves and fittings. Kitchen faucets Kohler are trusted by many entrepreneurs, because of the way they are constructed and the guarantee they offer. Kohler’s mission is “to improve their sense of elegant life in every experience you have with a product or service Kohler.”

This is a fairly strong mission and, since 1873, have been demonstrating to customers that offer the best possible products and services. From sustainable Kohler bathroom fixtures kitchen products, you can get all the necessary for a project to remodel your kitchen or bathroom by Kohler furniture.


Kohler history

John Michael Kohler came to the United States in 1854 because his father decided to move and buy a majority stake of the Union of Iron and Steel Foundry. They settled in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, where the company is located. After 19 years, Kohler Co. was founded in the middle of a financial panic in the United States, which had left many bankrupt railroads and many without work.

John Michael persisted as did cast iron apply to farmers, ornamental poles hitch, urns, benches, cemetery crosses and small projects for local furniture stores. In 1883, he created an enamel powder sprinkled on a dock after heating to 1700 degrees Fahrenheit, and this has made new appointments in the center of its catalog. Under the picture, he said, “Horse Trough / Hog Fireplace – When furnished with four legs will serve as a bathtub.”

Not only starts Kohler Co., but was also elected as the mayor of Sheboygan and created the first opera house in the city. In 1899, however, he decided that his Company Four kilometers from the city, as he believed that the city had become too congested. He moved to the position of a cross between a river where two Indian trails, which was four miles away from power utilities and labor. Sheboygan Press has called this “madness Kohler.”

Just a few days after the factor has been completed John Michael died and the factory was reduced to ashes three months later reality. He left behind four children, who were able to revive the place, but after five years the elder died two. Fortunately, one of his sons was endowed with unusual talents and was elected president of the company in 1905, added ceramic accessories and fasteners to help the growing line of bath products and began to look into automatic power and light for farmers .

In 1929, Walter became the governor of Wisconsin while serving as president of the company. The company, as we know it today would not exist if it were not for the children of John Michael. Kohler has always been known as a company that works hard and still cling to their roots today.

What you get with Kohler faucet

When you decide you want a Kohler faucet for your bathroom or kitchen, you can be sure that you get a quality integrated unit that will improve the overall appearance and function of the area. Your home will be different because of these high-end faucets and get the latest technology, colors, finishes and materials.

Kohler has a number of different collections to suit different styles. There are many to choose from, including finished nickel, iron, chromium, iron, black, bronze, stainless steel, chrome and many varieties of these finishes.They have something that fits almost any remodeling and styles: Art Deco, modern, contemporary and many others.

The main thing is obtained with a Kohler faucet it is a reliable product that works at a high level. The internal parts are made of brass and zinc die-cast solid to give wrench more durable water. They ensure that the kitchen taps is protected from waste water and minerals, so that you can enjoy for longer without the need to replace it.

Kohler also uses ceramic disc valves because they last longer and are resistant to rust. Also they allow for efficient water flow. The value is in a Kohler faucet will make it worthwhile, and this is the reason why many business owners rely on these taps. Most of your faucets are very affordable compared to other options and they are a company very appreciated by many in the construction of the house.


It manages various scenarios in which projected agricultural and livestock activities and estimated revenues and costs in terms of pricing alternatives. Generates the campaign budget and presents management indicators comparing the expected value with the real.
Recipe management software uses the definitions of fields, lots, activities, tasks, inputs and finance categories defined in the relevant modules. The valuation is determined by options defined price lists for products and inputs.
The scenarios correspond to different versions of the use of the field and the evolution of the livestock rodeo. Agricultural activities are projected based on the technology of crop and livestock production viability is assessed by the feed balance.


Definition of culture technologies or “recipes” according to the work and inputs defined in the module of Work, indicating their expected performance. Determining the weight of the categories of finance atbeginningthe campaign and its monthly increase, adding dry matter intake for food aspercentage of weight. Specification of forage resources managed, with its range of dry matter for each month in kilos per hectare. Optional indication of the reunification of the accounts included direct cost indicators and other agricultural finance costs for the control board. Determination of indicator representing the field value per hectare for control panel indicators.

Generation versions or scenarios from the actual data, or another version of planning to make changes and evaluate alternatives.
Definition of the use of the surface of the field, assigning lots to agricultural or livestock activities, and indicating the recipe to apply or forage resource available.
Summary of the areas assigned to control overall activity and not assigned as a difference from the total field surface.

Calculating the direct cost of a prescription based on a price list indicating the cost of inputs.
Determination of the margin per hectare for a recipe based on the direct costs calculated and the expected sale price for the crop.
Consolidation of input requirements for field indicating the period of its application to schedule purchases.
Calculation of field margins and culture according to the areas allocated and values of the chosen list prices.
Determination of the amounts budgeted by accounting or just regrouped and period according to the defined accounting charges for the work and supplies.

capture the movements of finance planned for the campaign, heads.
Selecting movements admitted for viewing or editing, allowing to modify the values to evaluate alternative scenarios.
Presentation of the evolution of rodeo heads per field and per month, with opening by category and type of movement.
Determination of meat production in kilos according to the movements of farm and livestock defined parameters.
Calculation of forage supply of livestock batches according to the contribution of dry matter of the respective resources.
Determination of feed demand according to the evolution of the rodeo, their average weight and dry matter intake parameters indicated in livestock.
Monthly assessment of the gap between supply and demand to determine adjustments in the evolution of rodeo or supplementation needs.
Determination of the amounts budgeted by accounting or just regrouped and period according to the defined accounting charges for livestock movements.

Assessment return on investment and deviation between the budget and the real, brokeninto fifteen physical and economic indicators for each field and activity.

Plasma to achieve materials for future batteries

Scientists at the University of Cordoba have described two routes, one of them unexpected, for hydrogen and graphene with the help of a cutting-edge technique: the plasma. The two compounds are used in new materials to make new generation batteries.

<P> Graphene seen under a microscope. The purity of this material is measured by the number of superposed layers. Unless layers, purer. / Dolores Calzada </ p>

Graphene seen under a microscope. The purity of this material is measured by the number of superposed layers. Unless layers, purer. / Dolores Calzada

A research group at the University of Cordoba has studied the process of decomposition of ethanol to produce hydrogen using plasma technology, unique in Spain, through devices from the University of Montreal (Canada).Ethanol is an alcohol and, through this novel technique could be decomposed into useful substances for new batteries.

only one for hydrogen and one for simultaneously achieve the production of hydrogen and graphene: specifically, two routes were described. Both are compounds of high value-added employees and in innovations for next-generation batteries, so high expectations for this research are opened.

It was a discovery in duplicate. The team, consisting of physical and chemical belonging to the Laboratory of Innovation University and in which collaborated a professor in the Department of Organic Chemistry, depuraban a technique for producing hydrogen from ethanol, an agricultural residue, when they obtained the while a material of solid carbon in very estimable amounts.

Ethanol could be broken down into useful substances for new batteries with new technique

After analyzing this material it was found that it was very high quality graphene. The results, recently published in the Chemical Engineering Journal , now open two new routes for next – generation batteries: exclusively produce hydrogen or hydrogen and graphene. The group, with the collaboration of the Office of Transfer of Research Results of the UCO, has already patented the procedure.

“When science define a goal and try to reach it, there are times that collateral unexpected results are obtained with new lines of work that can then explore you or with other research groups from other disciplines open,” recalls lead researcher Dolores Calzada.

Regarding the plasma is present in our daily lives. For example, fluorescent tubes and low-energy lamps. In fluorescent lamps, the gas contained therein is applied electrical energy, ionizing the gas and generating partially particles originate by interacting light emission.

The novelty is in this case given to using these particles, in particular electrons, which can break’ the molecules of ethanol resulting in new compounds. Ethanol consists of carbon molecules, hydrogen and oxygen, so predictably obtaining at least hydrogen and carbon. But not so the carbon atoms were associated resulting graphene, whose analysis was derived which is of high quality and free of metals, by not using catalysts in the process. This research was conducted within the framework of a project funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

To the industrial scale

Experimentally described the double track to obtain hydrogen from ethanol graphene, researchers are already working on industrial scale through a research and development (R & D) of the Government of Andalusia. “Initially, we will simultanear this two-way have opened,” said Calzada, “we do not know at all to where we can go and which of the two compounds may be more profitable from the economic point of view”.

Hydrogen battery is a reality and there are vehicles on the roads of the United States or Germany. However, it is given its novelty, further research on them because even all possibilities are not known. Hence, the hydrogen obtained by this technology will be used to analyze the workability of the fuel cell with hydrogen by the decomposition of ethanol.

With graphene, it is intended to produce new electrodes for fuel cells that do not need to use platinum as a catalyst, helping to lower the cost of this type of CPAP Batteries. The University of Cordoba has opened, in this sense, a new line of work to explore the potential of graphene in the energy field.

The Mediterranean trilogy.

The Mediterranean trilogy. PAST AND MODERNITY

For centuries we can see this landscape in many parts of southern Spain, although recent times have been forcing certain changes and developments, as we will see in this article.

Campo de Montiel. Real city

Cereals (started cultivation already in the Neolithic) have evolved from major wheat growing toward greater diversity. The cause of these changes is, as will happen in other products, the surpluses of this product in the European Union, which has madethe PAC (through its fund, FEOGA ) has subsidized other crops, especially those related with forage crops to feed a growing feedlot livestock.

Wheatfield. Campo Real (Madrid)

Also many traditional areas of cereal are occupied by alternative crops (such as sunflower for both oil and for the famous biofuels) as has become fallow (EU subsidizes to avoid surpluses) or being converted to forestry ( sustainable economic exploitation of forests)

Sunflower field. Eunate. Navarre

Almond blossom. Madrid

The vine (extended for almost the entire peninsula in different varieties) grown since Phoenician times (I millennium BC), although its true commercial development (creating modern wines) is done in the nineteenth century, with investment foreign (fine wines Andalusian), and through the introduction of new techniques (the method champanoise French for the development of Catalan cava) and by increased European demand with the expansion of phylloxera in France or Italy (from which leverages especially Rioja).

Rioja Alavesa vineyards. The guard

Since the entry of Spain into the EU has been a clear attempt to focus on quality that allows you to enter international markets. To do this each time has been invested more in mechanization, wort treatment at different aging (import American oak barrels on the French model, importance of oenologists …) and the creation of designations of origin to ensure greater quality consumer and serve advertising platform in markets (begun in the Rioja and Ribera de Duero and continued by multiple areas such as la Mancha, Campo de Borja, Somontano …)

machining vineyard. Campo de Montiel. Real city

As the olive tree (only possible from Central System to the south) its origin is Phoenician, and was driven by Romans both (who came to create an artificial hill with the remains of pottery containing the Hispanic oil, testacio) as Andalusians.

As it has happened with the wine (and in relation to the competence of the EU) has opted for a higher quality through designations of origin, mechanization of mills, a more careful selection of olives … (The theme is discussed further in this article profundad dedicated to olive groves in Jaen )

Olivar. Villar del Olmo. Madrid

There was a Closely related to this type of agricultural landscape sheep livestock transhumance , hitching areas of fallow land and had places of summer pasture (in the north of the peninsula) and winter (Andalusia, Extremadura, Castilla La Mancha) connected via Canadas (ERL protected livestock for roads) that came to be held by one of the largest medieval institutions (La Mesta).

Campo de Montiel. Real city

Derivatives of this operation a textile industry not too much quality (Bejar, Avila, Segovia, Cuenca), strong exports to Northern Europe (from Burgos as a place of centralization), and multiple productions of cheese among which the manchego was generated, once again and encompassed in its own appellation.

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