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Agriculture that takes into account nutrition is an approach that seeks to maximize the contribution of agriculture to nutrition. This strategy emphasizes the multiple benefits of enjoying a varied diet, and recognizes the nutritional value of foods for good nutrition, health and productivity, as well as the social importance of food and agriculture sector to support rural livelihoods . In addition, agriculture that takes into account nutrition involves directing attention to poor households, promote gender equality and provide nutrition education for the household resources are used to improve the nutrition of their members, especially women and children little ones. Finally, it involves linking agriculture sectors facing other causes of malnutrition, specifically education, health and social protection.
FAO promotes agriculture that takes into account nutrition through a variety of partnerships and capacity development. For example, since 2011, FAO has partnered with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to help countries integrate nutrition into their national agricultural investment plans. More recently, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), FAO, the World Bank and Renewed Efforts Initiative Against Child Hunger organized a training session on the subject, with the aim of expanding the pool of experts who know the links between agriculture and nutrition. The group is currently working to transform the workshop in a series of training sessions. Bibi Giyose, Senior Policy Officer FAO Nutrition, attended the workshop and shared their professional knowledge.
What were the main contributions of the workshop on agriculture that takes into account nutrition?
The attention of the workshop focused on the integration of objectives and concerns related to nutrition in the planning process of agricultural investment. The training emphasized planning nutrition interventions since the start of a project, rather than adapting existing programs, representing a detailed analysis of the situation to understand the nutritional problems and their causes in order to define the ways in that investments in agriculture can prevent malnutrition.Prevention is key, because in addition to the obvious health benefits that involves stopping before it starts malnutrition, prevention programs are more profitable than those that focus exclusively on treatment. Also in the workshop stressed the importance of monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of agricultural investments in food consumption and nutrition to document the positive results were noted, but also to take corrective measures in the event that negative impacts are observed.
¿ What is your experience in working with agriculture that takes into account nutrition?
As Senior Officer nutrition policy, work on incorporating nutrition considerations into policies and programs, trying to determine the best way agriculture in addition to the economic benefits, may benefit from nutritional goals. At this time, it is important to examine global trends in agricultural development, specifically how different agencies and sectors face or may face in their nutrition programs. Understand who does what is essential to ensure a coordinated and effective response.
What are some examples of how agriculture can improve nutrition in a home or community?
Instead of focusing exclusively on cash crops for sale in the market, rural farmers can use their land to produce a variety of commodities, including fruits, vegetables and small animals like chickens. This can improve household food security, nutrition and economic situation of the family and the community. For many households, agriculture is also a key revenue source that can be used, for example, to buy a variety of food and access to health care and clean water.Investing in school feeding programs with local products will help farmers by giving them a guaranteed market, but also encourage the proliferation of crops and nutritionally beneficial foods for children.
How can you change the trends and standards of agricultural development to improve nutrition?
There must be a change of mentality in the way we currently consider agriculture. This is not simply limited to the production of cereal crops; from horticulture to forestry and fisheries, agriculture should be seen not only as a means to an end but as an essential process for improving the quality of food available to the community and ensure healthy soils and ecosystems for future. Our food systems are also changing rapidly, as seen in the increasing reliance of rural purchased and processed foods. Although agricultural modernization and greater integration of markets is associated with lower level off of malnutrition, we also observed an increase in cases overweight and chronic diseases related to diet such as diabetes worldwide, while deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are standing at unacceptably high levels. Therefore, it is urgent to make the promotion of healthy diets occupy a central place in agricultural policies and programs.
This requires that we improve our indicators and we develop measurement systems that provide us with an accurate picture of how agriculture affects detailed 3 week diet plan review and then use this information to drive policy changes. Programs should focus more on prevention of all forms of malnutrition, and nutrition is to be incorporated into agricultural investment plans to ensure that a budget dedicated to agriculture that takes into account nutrition.
¿ In addition to agricultural production, what other ways you can change the food system to improve nutrition?
Nutrition must be incorporated into all aspects of the value chain, starting with soil rich in nutrients that improve crop quality, and extend through the food system to other elements such as food safety, processing and enrichment of these and their proper preparation and household consumption. The food preparation is essential to produce nutritionally rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables and dairy products, available all year. In addition, you can reduce the time of preparation of food; therefore, like other technologies that save labor, can enable women to devote more time to care for their children, specifically to suck them. Initiatives in nutrition education explaining which combinations of foods provide essential vitamins and minerals can also have a big impact.
Do you have some examples of projects or associations related to agriculture that takes into account nutrition within FAO?
Nutrition in the early stages of life is essential to stay well nourished, healthy and productive throughout a lifetime. Hence FAO work with farmers, processors and local markets in several countries to procure quality ingredients for supplementary feeding programs from six months of age. These complementary foods, when combined with continued breastfeeding, provide essential nutrients for the nutritional needs of growing children and for optimal physical and mental development. In Cambodia and Malawi, FAO works with extension and social services for women to introduce improved complementary foods using local ingredients by cooking demonstrations. In addition, in partnership with the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Fund of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), promotes improved school nutrition through school gardens, healthy school meals and the integration of nutrition education in the curricula of schools. In Cape Verde , for example, working with the Government, UN agencies and civil society organizations to promote buying local fruits, vegetables, beans and fish producers place to diversify school meals.
At the policy level, FAO is working with ministries of agriculture and health and other relevant institutions in various countries around the world, especially in member countries of the Movement for promoting nutrition, in order to ensure that nutritional goals are incorporated into agricultural policies and agricultural interventions are integrated into multi-sectoral nutrition strategies. FAO supports the creation of an enabling environment and capacity building for successful interventions on the ground to run on a larger scale.
Anyone who has shopped for a tap’ve probably heard of Kohler. It is one of the leading companies in the production of valves and fittings. Kitchen faucets Kohler are trusted by many entrepreneurs, because of the way they are constructed and the guarantee they offer. Kohler’s mission is “to improve their sense of elegant life in every experience you have with a product or service Kohler.”
This is a fairly strong mission and, since 1873, have been demonstrating to customers that offer the best possible products and services. From sustainable Kohler bathroom fixtures kitchen products, you can get all the necessary for a project to remodel your kitchen or bathroom by Kohler furniture.
John Michael Kohler came to the United States in 1854 because his father decided to move and buy a majority stake of the Union of Iron and Steel Foundry. They settled in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, where the company is located. After 19 years, Kohler Co. was founded in the middle of a financial panic in the United States, which had left many bankrupt railroads and many without work.
John Michael persisted as did cast iron apply to farmers, ornamental poles hitch, urns, benches, cemetery crosses and small projects for local furniture stores. In 1883, he created an enamel powder sprinkled on a dock after heating to 1700 degrees Fahrenheit, and this has made new appointments in the center of its catalog. Under the picture, he said, “Horse Trough / Hog Fireplace – When furnished with four legs will serve as a bathtub.”
Not only starts Kohler Co., but was also elected as the mayor of Sheboygan and created the first opera house in the city. In 1899, however, he decided that his Company Four kilometers from the city, as he believed that the city had become too congested. He moved to the position of a cross between a river where two Indian trails, which was four miles away from power utilities and labor. Sheboygan Press has called this “madness Kohler.”
Just a few days after the factor has been completed John Michael died and the factory was reduced to ashes three months later reality. He left behind four children, who were able to revive the place, but after five years the elder died two. Fortunately, one of his sons was endowed with unusual talents and was elected president of the company in 1905, added ceramic accessories and fasteners to help the growing line of bath products and began to look into automatic power and light for farmers .
In 1929, Walter became the governor of Wisconsin while serving as president of the company. The company, as we know it today would not exist if it were not for the children of John Michael. Kohler has always been known as a company that works hard and still cling to their roots today.
What you get with Kohler faucet
When you decide you want a Kohler faucet for your bathroom or kitchen, you can be sure that you get a quality integrated unit that will improve the overall appearance and function of the area. Your home will be different because of these high-end faucets and get the latest technology, colors, finishes and materials.
Kohler has a number of different collections to suit different styles. There are many to choose from, including finished nickel, iron, chromium, iron, black, bronze, stainless steel, chrome and many varieties of these finishes.They have something that fits almost any remodeling and styles: Art Deco, modern, contemporary and many others.
The main thing is obtained with a Kohler faucet it is a reliable product that works at a high level. The internal parts are made of brass and zinc die-cast solid to give wrench more durable water. They ensure that the kitchen taps is protected from waste water and minerals, so that you can enjoy for longer without the need to replace it.
Kohler also uses ceramic disc valves because they last longer and are resistant to rust. Also they allow for efficient water flow. The value is in a Kohler faucet will make it worthwhile, and this is the reason why many business owners rely on these taps. Most of your faucets are very affordable compared to other options and they are a company very appreciated by many in the construction of the house.
It manages various scenarios in which projected agricultural and livestock activities and estimated revenues and costs in terms of pricing alternatives. Generates the campaign budget and presents management indicators comparing the expected value with the real.
Recipe management software uses the definitions of fields, lots, activities, tasks, inputs and finance categories defined in the relevant modules. The valuation is determined by options defined price lists for products and inputs.
The scenarios correspond to different versions of the use of the field and the evolution of the livestock rodeo. Agricultural activities are projected based on the technology of crop and livestock production viability is assessed by the feed balance.
Definition of culture technologies or “recipes” according to the work and inputs defined in the module of Work, indicating their expected performance. Determining the weight of the categories of finance atbeginningthe campaign and its monthly increase, adding dry matter intake for food aspercentage of weight. Specification of forage resources managed, with its range of dry matter for each month in kilos per hectare. Optional indication of the reunification of the accounts included direct cost indicators and other agricultural finance costs for the control board. Determination of indicator representing the field value per hectare for control panel indicators.
Generation versions or scenarios from the actual data, or another version of planning to make changes and evaluate alternatives.
Definition of the use of the surface of the field, assigning lots to agricultural or livestock activities, and indicating the recipe to apply or forage resource available.
Summary of the areas assigned to control overall activity and not assigned as a difference from the total field surface.
Calculating the direct cost of a prescription based on a price list indicating the cost of inputs.
Determination of the margin per hectare for a recipe based on the direct costs calculated and the expected sale price for the crop.
Consolidation of input requirements for field indicating the period of its application to schedule purchases.
Calculation of field margins and culture according to the areas allocated and values of the chosen list prices.
Determination of the amounts budgeted by accounting or just regrouped and period according to the defined accounting charges for the work and supplies.
capture the movements of finance planned for the campaign, heads.
Selecting movements admitted for viewing or editing, allowing to modify the values to evaluate alternative scenarios.
Presentation of the evolution of rodeo heads per field and per month, with opening by category and type of movement.
Determination of meat production in kilos according to the movements of farm and livestock defined parameters.
Calculation of forage supply of livestock batches according to the contribution of dry matter of the respective resources.
Determination of feed demand according to the evolution of the rodeo, their average weight and dry matter intake parameters indicated in livestock.
Monthly assessment of the gap between supply and demand to determine adjustments in the evolution of rodeo or supplementation needs.
Determination of the amounts budgeted by accounting or just regrouped and period according to the defined accounting charges for livestock movements.
Assessment return on investment and deviation between the budget and the real, brokeninto fifteen physical and economic indicators for each field and activity.
Scientists at the University of Cordoba have described two routes, one of them unexpected, for hydrogen and graphene with the help of a cutting-edge technique: the plasma. The two compounds are used in new materials to make new generation batteries.
Graphene seen under a microscope. The purity of this material is measured by the number of superposed layers. Unless layers, purer. / Dolores Calzada
A research group at the University of Cordoba has studied the process of decomposition of ethanol to produce hydrogen using plasma technology, unique in Spain, through devices from the University of Montreal (Canada).Ethanol is an alcohol and, through this novel technique could be decomposed into useful substances for new batteries.
only one for hydrogen and one for simultaneously achieve the production of hydrogen and graphene: specifically, two routes were described. Both are compounds of high value-added employees and in innovations for next-generation batteries, so high expectations for this research are opened.
It was a discovery in duplicate. The team, consisting of physical and chemical belonging to the Laboratory of Innovation University and in which collaborated a professor in the Department of Organic Chemistry, depuraban a technique for producing hydrogen from ethanol, an agricultural residue, when they obtained the while a material of solid carbon in very estimable amounts.
Ethanol could be broken down into useful substances for new batteries with new technique
After analyzing this material it was found that it was very high quality graphene. The results, recently published in the Chemical Engineering Journal , now open two new routes for next – generation batteries: exclusively produce hydrogen or hydrogen and graphene. The group, with the collaboration of the Office of Transfer of Research Results of the UCO, has already patented the procedure.
“When science define a goal and try to reach it, there are times that collateral unexpected results are obtained with new lines of work that can then explore you or with other research groups from other disciplines open,” recalls lead researcher Dolores Calzada.
Regarding the plasma is present in our daily lives. For example, fluorescent tubes and low-energy lamps. In fluorescent lamps, the gas contained therein is applied electrical energy, ionizing the gas and generating partially particles originate by interacting light emission.
The novelty is in this case given to using these particles, in particular electrons, which can ‘ break’ the molecules of ethanol resulting in new compounds. Ethanol consists of carbon molecules, hydrogen and oxygen, so predictably obtaining at least hydrogen and carbon. But not so the carbon atoms were associated resulting graphene, whose analysis was derived which is of high quality and free of metals, by not using catalysts in the process. This research was conducted within the framework of a project funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.
To the industrial scale
Experimentally described the double track to obtain hydrogen from ethanol graphene, researchers are already working on industrial scale through a research and development (R & D) of the Government of Andalusia. “Initially, we will simultanear this two-way have opened,” said Calzada, “we do not know at all to where we can go and which of the two compounds may be more profitable from the economic point of view”.
Hydrogen battery is a reality and there are vehicles on the roads of the United States or Germany. However, it is given its novelty, further research on them because even all possibilities are not known. Hence, the hydrogen obtained by this technology will be used to analyze the workability of the fuel cell with hydrogen by the decomposition of ethanol.
With graphene, it is intended to produce new electrodes for fuel cells that do not need to use platinum as a catalyst, helping to lower the cost of this type of CPAP Batteries. The University of Cordoba has opened, in this sense, a new line of work to explore the potential of graphene in the energy field.
The Mediterranean trilogy. PAST AND MODERNITY
For centuries we can see this landscape in many parts of southern Spain, although recent times have been forcing certain changes and developments, as we will see in this article.
Campo de Montiel. Real city
Cereals (started cultivation already in the Neolithic) have evolved from major wheat growing toward greater diversity. The cause of these changes is, as will happen in other products, the surpluses of this product in the European Union, which has madethe PAC (through its fund, FEOGA ) has subsidized other crops, especially those related with forage crops to feed a growing feedlot livestock.
Wheatfield. Campo Real (Madrid)
Also many traditional areas of cereal are occupied by alternative crops (such as sunflower for both oil and for the famous biofuels) as has become fallow (EU subsidizes to avoid surpluses) or being converted to forestry ( sustainable economic exploitation of forests)
Sunflower field. Eunate. Navarre
Almond blossom. Madrid
The vine (extended for almost the entire peninsula in different varieties) grown since Phoenician times (I millennium BC), although its true commercial development (creating modern wines) is done in the nineteenth century, with investment foreign (fine wines Andalusian), and through the introduction of new techniques (the method champanoise French for the development of Catalan cava) and by increased European demand with the expansion of phylloxera in France or Italy (from which leverages especially Rioja).
Rioja Alavesa vineyards. The guard
Since the entry of Spain into the EU has been a clear attempt to focus on quality that allows you to enter international markets. To do this each time has been invested more in mechanization, wort treatment at different aging (import American oak barrels on the French model, importance of oenologists …) and the creation of designations of origin to ensure greater quality consumer and serve advertising platform in markets (begun in the Rioja and Ribera de Duero and continued by multiple areas such as la Mancha, Campo de Borja, Somontano …)
machining vineyard. Campo de Montiel. Real city
As the olive tree (only possible from Central System to the south) its origin is Phoenician, and was driven by Romans both (who came to create an artificial hill with the remains of pottery containing the Hispanic oil, testacio) as Andalusians.
As it has happened with the wine (and in relation to the competence of the EU) has opted for a higher quality through designations of origin, mechanization of mills, a more careful selection of olives … (The theme is discussed further in this article profundad dedicated to olive groves in Jaen )
Olivar. Villar del Olmo. Madrid
There was a Closely related to this type of agricultural landscape sheep livestock transhumance , hitching areas of fallow land and had places of summer pasture (in the north of the peninsula) and winter (Andalusia, Extremadura, Castilla La Mancha) connected via Canadas (ERL protected livestock for roads) that came to be held by one of the largest medieval institutions (La Mesta).
Campo de Montiel. Real city
Derivatives of this operation a textile industry not too much quality (Bejar, Avila, Segovia, Cuenca), strong exports to Northern Europe (from Burgos as a place of centralization), and multiple productions of cheese among which the manchego was generated, once again and encompassed in its own appellation.
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