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Welcome to OSU Extra, the Extension, Research, and Teaching Archive of Oklahoma State University's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Our publications are available for online viewing as Adobe Acrobat PDF files. Click here to download Adobe Acrobat Reader or click on the Adobe Acrobat box below..


OSU Extension Facts provide research-based information on a wide variety of subjects in regard to agriculture, economic development, family and consumer sciences, and youth development. You can navigate this site to the desired publication by one of two methods:

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The Mediterranean trilogy.

The Mediterranean trilogy. PAST AND MODERNITY

For centuries we can see this landscape in many parts of southern Spain, although recent times have been forcing certain changes and developments, as we will see in this article.

Campo de Montiel. Real city

Cereals (started cultivation already in the Neolithic) have evolved from major wheat growing toward greater diversity. The cause of these changes is, as will happen in other products, the surpluses of this product in the European Union, which has madethe PAC (through its fund, FEOGA ) has subsidized other crops, especially those related with forage crops to feed a growing feedlot livestock.

Wheatfield. Campo Real (Madrid)

Also many traditional areas of cereal are occupied by alternative crops (such as sunflower for both oil and for the famous biofuels) as has become fallow (EU subsidizes to avoid surpluses) or being converted to forestry ( sustainable economic exploitation of forests)

Sunflower field. Eunate. Navarre

Almond blossom. Madrid

The vine (extended for almost the entire peninsula in different varieties) grown since Phoenician times (I millennium BC), although its true commercial development (creating modern wines) is done in the nineteenth century, with investment foreign (fine wines Andalusian), and through the introduction of new techniques (the method champanoise French for the development of Catalan cava) and by increased European demand with the expansion of phylloxera in France or Italy (from which leverages especially Rioja).

Rioja Alavesa vineyards. The guard

Since the entry of Spain into the EU has been a clear attempt to focus on quality that allows you to enter international markets. To do this each time has been invested more in mechanization, wort treatment at different aging (import American oak barrels on the French model, importance of oenologists …) and the creation of designations of origin to ensure greater quality consumer and serve advertising platform in markets (begun in the Rioja and Ribera de Duero and continued by multiple areas such as la Mancha, Campo de Borja, Somontano …)

machining vineyard. Campo de Montiel. Real city

As the olive tree (only possible from Central System to the south) its origin is Phoenician, and was driven by Romans both (who came to create an artificial hill with the remains of pottery containing the Hispanic oil, testacio) as Andalusians.

As it has happened with the wine (and in relation to the competence of the EU) has opted for a higher quality through designations of origin, mechanization of mills, a more careful selection of olives … (The theme is discussed further in this article profundad dedicated to olive groves in Jaen )

Olivar. Villar del Olmo. Madrid

There was a Closely related to this type of agricultural landscape sheep livestock transhumance , hitching areas of fallow land and had places of summer pasture (in the north of the peninsula) and winter (Andalusia, Extremadura, Castilla La Mancha) connected via Canadas (ERL protected livestock for roads) that came to be held by one of the largest medieval institutions (La Mesta).

Campo de Montiel. Real city

Derivatives of this operation a textile industry not too much quality (Bejar, Avila, Segovia, Cuenca), strong exports to Northern Europe (from Burgos as a place of centralization), and multiple productions of cheese among which the manchego was generated, once again and encompassed in its own appellation.


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